To export the database to rtf, press "Export"; to print, press "Print".

If "Add" and "Save" buttons are not available, the file is closed for editing or stress measurement units are not MPa.

The database contains physical properties of pipe and element materials. This database can be edited.

**When working with START-PROF, it
must be noted that the database is for information only and is open for
editing. You should thoroughly familiarize yourself with the contents
of the database and enter any necessary changes: add required materials,
properties, etc.**

During analysis, if temperature is less than the minimum in the materials database, the material's physical-mechanical properties are taken according to the minimum temperature in the database (usually 20°С).

To export a material from the database, click "export" in the "materials" window and select the ".mat" file path. A saved file can be loaded into the database by clicking "import".

Button "Copy to" may be used to copy material from one code database into another code database. After copying the new material properties should be checked manually, because some of columns may remain blank.

Material properties used in the analysis are saved in a "ctp" file. When a file containing materials not present in the database is opened, you will be asked if you would like to add these materials to the database. If the materials or soils are already present in the database but have different properties, you will be given 3 choices: update the material properties in the database, add the material to the database under a new name, or delete the material from the analysis file and use the database data.

Allowable stresses are stored in "ksi" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "ksi".

Data taken from ASME B31.1 code.

Allowable stresses in database (SE) already multiplied by weld joint efficiency factor E (table 102.4.3).

Wl - Weld strength reduction factor (table 102.4.7). Start automatically use this factor for wall thickness check and for allowable stress calculation for circumferential welds (Wc).

Creep Factors are taken from Russian GOST 32388-2013.

Allowable stresses are stored in "ksi" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "ksi".

Data taken from ASME B31.3 code.

Allowable stresses in database (S) are not multiplied by weld joint efficiency factor E (table 302.3.3).

Wl - Weld strength reduction factor (table 302.3.5). Start automatically use this factor for wall thickness check and for allowable stress calculation for circumferential welds (Wc).

Creep Factors are taken from Russian GOST 32388-2013.

Enabled option "Maximum f=1.2" means that stress range factor may be used f=1.2 for this material.

Allowable stresses are stored in "ksi" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "ksi".

Data taken from ASME B31.4 code.

Data taken from ASME B31.5 code.

Allowable stresses in database (SE) already multiplied by longitudinal or spiral weld joint factor E (table 502.2.1).

Data taken from ASME B31.8 code.

Yield Stress (Sy) and Tensile stress (Su) are already multiplied by temperature derating factor "T" (Table 841.1.8-1) in database (Sy*T, Su*T), and not multiplied by longitudinal weld joint factor E (Table 841.1.7-1).

Data taken from ASME B31.9 code.

Allowable stresses in database (S) are not multiplied by weld joint efficiency factor E.

Allowable stresses are stored in "MPa" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "MPa".

Data taken from EN 10216-2-2013, EN 10216-5-2013, EN 10217-7-2014 codes.

SRTt - mean value of creep rupture strength for the considered lifetime in hours.

Allowable stresses are stored in "MPa" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "MPa".

Data taken from DL/T 5366-2014 code.

Allowable stresses are stored in "MPa" units, therefore this database can be edited only if stress measurement units are set as "MPa".

Data taken from DL/T 5366-2014 code.

Allowable stresses in database (S) are not multiplied by weld joint efficiency factor E (table 3).

Data taken from GB 50316-2008 code.

Allowable stresses in database (S) are not multiplied by weld joint efficiency factor E (table 3.2.5).

Yield Stress (Sy) and Tensile stress (Su) are already multiplied by temperature derating factor "T" in database (Sy*T, Su*T), and not multiplied by longitudinal weld joint factor E.

If and is not specified (equal to 0), simplified failure envelope are used

, , , , - long-term failure envelope stress values for pipes and joints (see picture above), multiplied by the corresponding factor (considering temperature influence). Long-term failure envelope stress calculated by multiplying of short-term failure envelope stress , , , , by scale factor =1/Z, obtained according to 7.11.2 ISO 14692-3 by equation:

Qualified stress for pipe calculated by equation:

- average pipe diameter

- pipe reinforced wall thickness

- full pipe wall thickness

- thickness of the liner (internal protective layer)

- thickness of the topcoat (external protective layer)

, - qualified pressure for pipe according to 7.3 14692-3:2002

- obtained according to 6.2.4 ISO 14692-2:2002

, , , , - short-term failure envelope stress for pipes and joints. Obtained according to ISO 14692-2 Annex C

Point (0:1) - hoop to axial stress ratio 0:1, i.e. pipe tension under zero pressure

- short-term axial stress

Point (1:1) - hoop to axial stress ratio 1:1, i.e. pipe under internal pressure and tension

=

- obtained from experiment according to ASTM D2105 (см. п. 6.2.6 ISO 14692-2:2002)

Point (2:1) - hoop to axial stress ratio 2:1, i.e. pipe under internal pressure

- short-term hoop stress

- short-term pressure, obtained according to 6.2.4 ISO 14692-2:2002

- for pipes =/2, for fittings obtained according to test by ASTM D2105 (6.2.6 ISO 14692-2:2002), that is needed to specify factor r:

For pipes r=1

for bends and reducers: "qs bend,reducer" qualified stress , multiplied by the corresponding temperature factor

for tees, nozzles and saddles: "qs tee, nozzle" qualified stress , multiplied by the corresponding temperature factor

Qualified stress for fittings (tees, bends, reducers) should be calculated by equation:

- qualified pressure for fitting

- qualified pressure for pipe

elasticity modulus - axial , hoop and lateral G, all multiplied by the corresponding temperature factor

linear expansion factor and axial Poisson's ratio (Vh/a)

All properties must be input according to data provided by pipe and fiberglass manufacturers

Used only for Start-Elements for piping to equipment stub-in node analysis

Tables for each steel contain data on nominal allowable stress [σ], elasticity modulus E, linear (thermal) expansion factor α and Poisson's ratio μ depending on operation temperature and design service life. All data adapted from RD 10-249-98. Yield strength at 20° is used for test pressure stress analysis (see "wall thickness analysis").

When analyzing with RD 10-249-98 allowable stress is interpolated depending on service life in hours. 1 year = 365*24 = 8760 hours.

According to RD 10-400-01 section 3.1, data are adapted from RD 10-249-98, but only for steel used in heating networks up to 350° operation temperature. Yield strength at 20° is used for test pressure stress analysis (see "wall thickness analysis"). Yield strength values are also used for fatigue strength analysis according to RD 10-400-01

Data adapted from GOST R 55596-2013

Tables for each steel contain data on nominal allowable stress [σ], elasticity modulus E, linear (thermal) expansion factor α and Poisson's ratio μ depending on operation temperature. Calculated according to RTM 38.001-94. Yield strength at 20° is used for test pressure stress analysis (see "wall thickness analysis")

Standard resistance to expansion (compression) of pipe and welded joint material, equal to tensile strength and yield strength , elasticity modulus E, linear expansion factor α and Poisson's ratio μ depending on operation temperature. Must be set according to regional standards and pipe technical properties.

For seamless pipes, data adapted from RD 10-249-98 at design service life of 200 thousand hours; for welded pipes, from GOST 34233.1-2017 [1]. Yield strength at 20° is used for test pressure stress analysis (see "wall thickness analysis").

Plasticity factor is used for cryogenic piping analysis (with temperatures below 70 degrees Celsius)

- Material density
- Safety factors:
- "Test" - Allowable stress safety factor for test state
- "T<20" - Allowable stress safety factor for temperatures lower or equal to 20 degrees of Celsius
- "T>20" - Allowable stress safety factor for temperatures greater than 20 degrees of Celsius
- "Occasional" - Allowable stress safety factor for occasional loads analysis
- A1, B1, G1, J1 - characteristic factors for left curve
- A2, B2, G2, J2 - characteristic factors for right curve. If only one curve used then set A2=0, B2=0, G2=0, J2=0

- Creep modulus depending on temperature, service life, and stress range. N=0.1 hour (6 minutes) used for occasional loads analysis, N=1.667 hour (100 minutes) used for support loads and displacements calculation, N=100 hours and higher is used for internal forces and stress calculation

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