Tabs:
To insert the pipe you must select the node that will be start node of the pipe element and then insert the pipe in that node. The end node will be created automatically if it was not specified. To insert the pipe between two existing nodes you must select these nodes and then insert the pipe element between them or specify the node numbers manually.
Property 
Description 
Name 
Text field. Element can be sorted by name and selected in the project tree 
Projections\sphere\cylinder^{1} 
Projections  element dimensions
are input as projections on global coordinate
axes D_{X},
D_{Y}, D_{Z}; 
External diameter, D 
External pipe diameter, D 
Manufacturing technology 
For ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3, DL/T 53662014 seamless pipe will always use Wl=1.0. For electricwelded pipe Wl will be specified from database. More... When using GOST 323882013, pipe physical properties are taken from different materials databases depending on pipe type (seamless/welded). 
Material 
Material from materials database 
Nominal wall thickness, S 
Nominal (actual) wall thickness 
Mill tolerance 
Mill tolerance at the time of production. More... 
Liner thickness, tL 
Thickness of the liner (internal protective layer) for FRP piping. Liner and Topcoat thickness are used to calculate reinforced wall thickness tr=ttLtc and mean diameter Dr=D2*tctr 
Topcoat thickness, tc 
Thickness of the topcoat (external protective layer) for FRP piping 
Corrosion and wear allowance 
Corrosion and wear allowance (working mill tolerance) for wall thickness. More... 
Pressure, P 
Design pressure set for all standards except SNIP 2.05.0685 and SP 36.13330.2012. Operation pressure set when analyzing with SNIP 2.05.0685 and SP 36.13330.2012. This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button 
Temperature, Т_{op} 
Design temperature in operating mode. More... This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button 
Thermal Gradient 
Thermal gradient is the temperature difference between the bottom and the top of the pipe dT=TtopTbottom. Used to model thermal bowing effect on horizontal pipes. More... To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button 
Installation pressure, P_{assembly} 
Pressure in installation state. See "wall thickness analysis" 
Automatic pipe weight calculation 
Pipe weight is automatically calculated as Material density is taken from the materials database 
Uniform pipe weight 
Uniform pipe and adjoining structure weight. More... 
Uniform insulation weight 
Uniform insulation weight. More... This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button 
Insulation Thickness, ti Insulation Density Cladding Thickness, tc Cladding Density Lining Thickness, tl Lining Density 
1  pipe, 2  insulation, 3cladding, 4  lining, t  pipe wall thickness, ti  insulation thickness, tc  cladding thickness, tl  lining thickness 
Uniform product weight / product density 
Uniform product weight or product density. More... This property can be changed in different operation modes. To see the value of this property in all operating modes push the button 
Note 1: element dimensions in space can be input in three ways:
As projections on global coordinate axes D_{X}, D_{Y}, D_{Z} (см. рис ниже)
As element length L and angles between the element axis and global coordinate axes j_{X}, j_{Y}, j_{Z}. Positive angles are those between the element axis and positive XYZ axes directions, while negative are those between the element axis and negative XYZ axes directions (see figure below)
As the length of the element projection on the XY plane (L_{X0Y}), projection on the Z axis (D_{Z}) and two angles between the projection on the XY plane and X and Y axes (j_{X}, j_{Y})
Property 
Description 
Longitudinal Weld Joint Efficiency Factor, E 
Longitudinal weld joint efficiency factor, E. More... 
Coefficient y 
For B31.3 code, the coefficient depending on temperature and steel type 
Design Factor, F 
For ASME B31.8 Onshore: For ASME B31.12PL: 
Design Factor, a 
For BS PD 8010 Onshore: 
Location Factor, L 
For CSA Z662: Table 4.2 
Basic Design Factor, FA, FB 
For CSA Z662: Table 11.1 
Steel Performance Factor, Mf Steel Performance Factor, Hf 
ASME B31.12: 
High Pressure 
If this option is checked, then used Chapter IX requirements of ASME B31.3 
Pipeline Location 
If checked Offshore Pipeline, then used Chapter IX requirements of ASME B31.4 or Chapter VIII requirements of ASME B31.8 If checked Slurry Pipes, then used Chapter XI requirements of ASME B31.4 
Pipeline Type 
Restrained Pipeline  for this pipe will be used code requirements as for restrained pipe. See details here. Unrestrained Pipeline  for this pipe will be used code requirements as for unrestrained pipe. See details here. Riser or Platform for Inland Waterways or Platform Piping  for this pipe will be used code requirements as for Riser If you don't want to specify manually restrained and unrestrained pipes, just select Autodetect or START Smart Check options in Project Settings. See details here. 
Creep diminish factor^{2}, 
Compensation stress averaging factor. Input only for hightemperature pipelines according to RD 1024998 section 5.2.3.6, GOST 323882013 section 7.1.7. Input 0 for lowtemperature pipelines. Can be calculated automatically by clicking (see note 2 below). 
Creep selfspringing factor^{2}, 
Compensation stress relaxation factor. Input only for hightemperature pipelines according to RD 1024998 section 5.2.3.7, GOST 323882013 section 7.1.7. Input 0 for lowtemperature pipelines. Can be calculated automatically by clicking (see note 2 below). 
Pipeline category 
Pipeline category according to SNIP 2.05.0685 table 1: B, I, II, III, IV. Used for calculating the operation condition factor m 
Product 
Product: gas, oil, oil products. Used for calculating the safety factor based on pipeline function using SNIP 2.05.0685 
Safety factor K_{1} 
Safety factor for material K_{1} according to SNIP 2.05.0685 table 9 
Safety factor K_{2} 
Safety factor for material K_{2} according to SNIP 2.05.0685 table 10 
Safety factor based on load n for internal pressure 
Safety factor based on load n for internal pressure according to SNIP 2.05.0685 table 13 
Safety factor, Ky 
Used for plastic piping (HDPE piping). Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. In absence of the data the table below may be used. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis 
Chemical resistance factor, A2 
Used for FRP/GRP/GRE piping. In case of nonaggressive product the factor is 1.0 
Chemical resistance factor, Kx 
Used for plastic piping (HDPE piping). In case of nonaggressive product the factor is 1.0. The factor should be provided by pipe manufacturer. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis 
Laying condition factor, Kp 
Used for plastic piping. The decision can be made by stress analyst

Temperature range factor, k 
Used for plastic and fiberglass piping. The temperature range is multiplied by this factor. It consider the nonlinear distribution of temperature across the wall thickness. For thermoplastic piping recommended value is 1.0 and for fiberglass piping 0.85 for fluid and 0.8 for gas if no other information available. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis 
Swelling strain, e3 
Used for plastic piping. Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis 
Strength factor of joint, Кс 
Used for plastic piping. Should be provided by pipe manufacturer. In absence of the data the table below may be used. See Thermoplastic Piping Stress Analysis 
Safety Factor gm 
Used in EN13941: 
Project Class 
Used in EN 13941: Class A, B, C can be specified manually. Or you can choose Auto option. It will determine the class automatically based on following graph: rg  average pipe radius 
Pipeline Type 
Used in EN 13941. The lowest number of equivalent full action cycles is determined depending on pipeline type (character of pipeline). The lowest number of cycles values should be specified in Project Settings: 
Additional weight load 
Additional uniform weight load. Must be manually multiplied by the overload factor according to standards. This load is applied in all operating modes. Additional weight loads are used to calculate mass for dynamic (seismic) analysis 
Additional nonweight load 
Additional uniform nonweight load. Input for all three global coordinate axes projections. Must be manually multiplied by the overload factor according to standards. This load is applied in all operating modes. Additional nonweight loads are not used to calculate mass for dynamic (seismic) analysis 
Note 2: In STARTPROF, low and hightemperature pipelines different in and factor values, input in input data. If the factors are 0, the piping is lowtemperature. Otherwise, the piping is considered hightemperature, regardless of the actual heating temperature and steel brand.
If the piping is mixed, i.e. consisting both low and hightemperature elements, temperature difference at each element is set as either low or hightemperature, while the overall piping stress analysis is done as for a hightemperature piping.
and factors can be calculated automatically by clicking . If the piping material is included in one of the standards RD 1024998, GOST 323882013, the factor calculation is instant. If it is absent, a dialog window will be displayed, where steel with corresponding averaging and relaxing factors must be selected.
For more information, see Loads and effects combination, high and lowtemperature pipelines, pressure thrust force.
Component elevation 
ASCE 722, KBC 2016, EN 19981: z/h NSR10, NBC 2020: hx/hn UBC 1997: hx/hr 
Component resonance ductility factor, Car 

Component strength factor 

Structure ductility reduction factor 



Piping placement 
Piping placement selection

Factor taking into account piping function Ko 
SP 14.13330.2018 table 3, SNIP II781* table 16, SP 36.13330.2012 table 15 
Factors Kh, Kv 
Increasing factors depending on structure height and type 
Structure type 
Factors Kh, Kv depend on the stiffness and mass of the structure on which the piping is placed

Soil deformation module above 10000 MPa 
If the soil deformation module for the base of the structure on which the piping is placed is above 10000 MPa, an additional increasing factor of 1.5 is input 
Peak ground velocity, Vg 
If only peak ground acceleration values are available, the following table may be used (ASCE 2001): 
Peak ground acceleration, Ag 
If the soil deformation module for the base of the structure on which the piping is placed is above 10000 MPa, an additional increasing factor of 1.5 is input 
Apparent PWave Propagation Velocity, Cp Apparent SWave Propagation Velocity, Cs 
Default values are Cp=2 km/s, Cs=2 km/s. Recommended wave velocity values are shown in the table Data taken from "Методические рекомендации по определению динамических свойств грунтов, скальных пород и местных строительных материалов. П0172. // ВНИИГ им. Б.Е. Веденеева, 1972 (Russian language)" Wave speed for pipe stress analysis should be calculated using the following method, depending on soil layers thickness and wave speed values for each layer, see picture below. 
Property 
Description 
Insulation Outer Diameter  Insulation Outer Diameter. If 0 (zero) value specified, then pipe outer diameter is used by default 
Start Node Elevation from Ground  Elevation from the ground surface is used for calculation of wind and ice loads 
End Node Elevation from Ground  Elevation from the ground surface is used for calculation of wind and ice loads 
Snow Shape Factor  If show shape factor is zero, then snow load will not be applied on this pipe element
Ca  Snow Shape Factor. Recommended value is 0.55
Same as ASCE 722
 snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.5
Same as EN 199113:2003+A1:2015
 snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4
 snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4
Ca  snow shape factor. Recommended value is 0.4
Ca  Snow Shape Factor. Recommended value is 0.55 
Thermal Coefficient 
Ct  Thermal Coefficient
Same as ASCE 722
Ct  Thermal Coefficient
Ct  Thermal Coefficient 
Snow (and Rain) Load  Calculated normative value of snow load. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code 
Ice Shape Factor  If ice shape factor is zero, then ice load will not be applied on this pipe element
c  Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0
Same as ASCE 722
c  Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0
c  Ice Shape Factor. Recommended value is 1.0 
Ice Load  Calculated normative value of ice load. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code 
Wind Shape Factor  If wind shape factor is zero, then wind load will not be applied on this pipe element
Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:
Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.2
– Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:
Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:
c  Aerodynamic factor. Recommended value is 1.2
Cq – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 0.8
Cfig  Wind shape factor. Recommended value  Auto
Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value  Auto
Ca – Wind shape factor. Recommended value  Auto
Cp – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.2
Cf – Wind shape factor. Recommended value  Auto
Cf – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:
Ca – Wind shape factor. If "Auto" option is on:
c  Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.0
c – Wind shape factor. Recommended value is 1.0
c – Drag coefficient. Recommended value is 1.0 
Correction factor 
Kre – Wind correction factor 0.71.0
v – Wind correction factor 0.380.95 
Wind
Direction Number
Wind Load 
Calculated normative value of wind load for each wind direction and projections of this load on global axes. This value will be automatically multiplied by safety factor if required by code 
STARTPROF perform the Wall thickness check for all Pipe elements according to selected code.
To insert a flange, select the desired node and use the menu option: Insert > Insert Pipe
or press the toolbar icon.
To view properties of an existing element:
Doubleclick the element in the 3D view
Select the element and press the toolbar icon