Operation Mode Editor allow you to analyze several operation modes of piping in one project file. Smart Operation Mode Editor is highlevel tool. It automatically generates the special template load cases for operation mode and additional forcebased loads combination, specified by user. Manual creation of load cases is not needed. User can concentrate on piping design, not on creation of proper load case combinations. Smart operation mode editor will take care on this itself without errors due to human factor and lack of knowledge.
You can add Operation Modes or Force Loads.
Operation Mode  piping operation mode with certain pressure, temperature, fluid weight, support displacements, etc. (1, 2, 3, etc.). Main operation modes is used to model different displacementbased loads on piping. For example main modes could be general operation mode, emergency operation mode, test mode, steaming mode, hog and sag modeling for ship piping etc. Main operation mode has several piping states: hot state, cold state.
Force Loads  additional forces applied to the one of operating modes (4.1, 6.1, etc.). Force loads are used to model additional sustained and occasional forces like safety valve thrust forces, slug flow loads, water hammer loads, blast loads, wind loads, snow loads, ice loads, etc. Concentrated forces are applied in nodes and uniform forces are applied in pipes. The number of force loads is unlimited.
Here are the example of operation modes (below). Piping has five operation modes: Main, steaming, filling, discharging, test. Operation mode 2 has two additional force loads (relief valve 1, relief valve 2).
To see online description of automatically generated load case templates just click help buttons "?":
When all operation modes are added, this window can be closed. You can select the current operation mode on the toolbar. All data will be displayed and entered only for current operation mode. If you open the pipe properties, you will see pressure and temperature only for current operating mode. If you want to see the properties of another operation mode, then you should change the current operation mode and open the pipe properties again.
Properties, that can be changed in different main operating modes:
Pressure
Temperature
Fluid density
Insulation weight
Additional uniform loads in the pipe
Additional loads in the node
Support movements
Ambient temperature in Project settings
All other properties can't be changed.
If several operating modes are specified in operation mode editor, then first sustained operating mode is used for La and Lb calculation and these values are used for all operating modes.
If more than one operation mode is specified, then "L" buttons appear near the fields that can be changed in different operation modes. If you click this button you will see all property values in different operation modes.
In new project should be added at least one operating mode. If test mode analysis is checked in project settings, then test mode should be added too. Below you can see the example of minimum set of operating modes for new project. If test mode is not required then first row can be deleted
Property 
Description 
* 
Enable/disable operation mode. Just uncheck to disable current operation mode during analysis. You can always check it to enable operation mode again 
# 
Number of operation mode. Main modes have numbers like "1", "2", etc. The additional forcebased loadings have numbers like "2.1", "2.2", "4.3", etc. where first number is main mode number and second number if force loading number 
Name 
Operation mode name. You can enter any text here 
Hanger Sizing 
Hangers selection can be done only in one main operation mode. For all other operating modes STARTPROF will use already selected springs. You can't check this option for more than one modes. If no options checked then hanger selection will not be performed 
High temperature 
If at least one pipe element classified as high temperature according to GOST 323882013 then this option must be checked, creep diminish and creep selfspringing factors must be entered to high temperature pipe elements 
Cold state 
If this option is checked, then program will calculate additional special mode that called "Cold State". Analysis is done for negative temperature that equal to temperature difference between installation and operation temperature. The initial state for friction forces analysis is Hot state (Operating Mode). For example, if Ambient temperature is 20 and design temperature is +50, then piping will heat up from 20 to +50 and come into main operation mode and after that it will cool down from +50 to 20 and come to cold state. The friction forces change their direction during cooling down. Cold state loads and stresses will be not the same as installation state loads and stresses. It is recommended to specify only one cold state for one project, because calculation of more than one cold states doesn't have sense 
Seismic 
If this option is checked, then program will calculate additional load cases with seismic inertial forces at different directions for corresponding operation mode. This option can be checked for several operation modes. For example, if we have two operation modes with temperature 50 and 200 degrees, then seismic loads cases can be checked for each of these modes. You will see what will happen if seismic activity will happen during 50 degree operation mode and 200 degree operation mode 
Wind 
If this option is checked, then program will calculate additional load cases with wind loads at different directions for corresponding operation mode. This option can be checked for several operation modes. The idea is the same as for seismic loading 
Snow 
If this option is checked, then program will calculate additional load cases with snow and ice loads for corresponding operation mode. This option can be checked for several operation modes. The idea is the same as for seismic loading 
Dynamic 
Dynamic analysis will be performed for this operating mode 
Mode Type 
There are several types of mode:

OCC(k) OCC Std OCC Alt 
kfactor for allowable stress calculation from the occasional loads according to the selected code. ASME B31.1, ASME B31.9:
ASME B31.5: k=1.33 GB/T 208012006: k=1.33 
Time Duration, h 
Time duration of current operating mode. Used for ASME B31.3 appendix V calculations of alternative occasional stress and creeprupture usage factor, u 
Stress range between 
You can check here between which modes the expansion stress range should be calculated. Stress range can be calculated between main operation modes only 
Use Load Factors 
Allows to disable overload factors, required by codes EN 13941, GOST 32388, SP 36.13330 and others. Needed for more accurate spring selection. But please note, that after analysis using full overload factors, loads on springs may exceed allowable 
Friction Multiplier 
Coefficient for friction factors (0...1.0). If you need to perform piping stress analysis without friction  just specify 0. If you will specify 0.5  analysis will be done with half of friction factors. If you will specify 1.0  analysis will be done with full friction factors specified in the model. Friction multiplier of 0 or 0.5 may be used for wind, seismic, water hammer, slug flow, relief valve thrust, and other occasional loads Friction multiplier is not applied for slip joint and torsion expansion joint 
Spec. Analyze 
If this option is checked, then the special analysis like single use compensator cold spring or preheating will be performed for current operating mode. The type of analysis is chosen in Project Settings 
Weight Multiplier 
Zero weight multiplier is used during reducing nozzle loads and adding flexibility to piping. If weight is zero we can be sure, that nozzle loads caused by thermal expansions only. Weight multiplier greater than 1 may be used during transportation stage analysis of piping block or falling to sea bed 
Snubbers Active 
For this forcebased load case the snubbers will be locked (displacements from additional forces will be restricted) 
Real loads cases are generated based on the information specified in operation mode editor. After you run analysis, STARTPROF automatically generate template load cases according to operation modes.
A differential friction model is used for STARTPROF piping analysis. Sequential transition from one state to another is considered as a chain:"installation mode"  "operating mode"  "cold mode". At each state, an analysis of the deformed state is done. For example, when analyzing in cold mode, the piping in the current stresseddeformed state corresponding to the operating mode is considered and weight plus negative temperature difference (cooling) is added. Friction force is each support is first change direction, while leaving the support in its place, then start to move to their position in installation mode. But supports do not return to their initial (installation) position.
Theoretically, several cycles of "operation state"  "cold mode" occurring during piping use can be considered. But experiments show that the first heatingcooling cycle gives the greatest stress amplitude, so the first cycle is sufficient for determining fatigue failure margins.
Elastic deformation transitions into plastic (residual) deformation in highpressure pipelines with creep. This leads to gradual decrease of stress in operating mode and negative stress in cold mode. RD 1024998 section 5.2 and GOST 323882013 use averaging factor χ and relaxation factor δ in safety analysis for pipelines with creep, which decrease the real temperature difference in operating mode and increase it in cold mode. This allows an approximate safety analysis with a margin, but does not give an accurate value of node displacement, which determines the piping deformed shape, and visible displacement and support loads. Separate analyses are done in STARTPROF to overcome this shortcoming:
stress relaxation in operating mode is not taken into account for calculating loads on equipment supports (i.e., analyses are done for the first heating without considering χ and δ factors)
piping state after stress relaxation is used for safety analysis and equipment load analysis in cold state (i.e., taking into account averaging factor χ and relaxation factor δ)
L  load case
T  design temperature
Tambient  Ambient temperature, input in Project Settings
Tt  test temperature, input in Project Settings
P  design pressure
Pt  test pressure
Sh  allowable stress at hot temperature
Sc  allowable stress at cold temperature
Sy  yield stress at test temperature
St  allowable stress at test temperature
fat  fatigue curve
SUS  sustained
OPE  operational
OCC  occasional
HGR  hanger selection
CLD  cold
EXP  expansion
F  additional nonweight loads. Considered in all operating modes. Not used for seismic load value calculation
Fw  additional weight loads. Considered in all operating modes. Used for seismic load value calculation (Fw+W)
H  variable or constant spring hanger force
CS  cold spring
W  pipe weight*1.1+Insulation weight*1.2+fluid weight*1.0 or pipe weight+Insulation weight+fluid weight depending on code requirement. Also insulation weight can be zero in installation state
Ww  pipe weight+Insulation weight+(water or zero weight at test state)
D  support displacement at operation state
Dt  support displacement at test state
Dd  Support settlement
E, alfa  elastic modulus and thermal expansion factor
χ  creep stress averaging factor
δ  creep stress relaxation factor
For piping without creep, template loads cases are shown in table below
Load cases L1  L2 are performed for operation modes in which the "Spring Selection" option is activated
Load cases L3  L5, L4* are performed for each main operation mode with mode type = SUS (sustained)
Load cases L6  L8 are performed for operation modes in which the "Cold State" option is activated
L9 check is performed between cold and hot mode and between different operation modes
Load case L10 is performed for test mode
Load cases L11  L12 are performed for each main operation mode with mode type = OCC (occasional)
Load cases L13  L15 are performed for each additional forcebased loading
If options "Seismic", "Wind", "Snow" are selected then automatically performed several additional load case analysis for seismic, wind and snow loads
# 
Name 
Load case 
Allowable stress 
One way link 
Frict. factor 
Spring 
E, alfa 
Bend kfactor 
Output 
L1 
Hanger selection 
W1 
 
Calc 
0 
Singledirectional rigid 
T1 or Tambient 
P1 

L2 
T1+D1+Dd 
 
Calc 
0 
Stiffness iteration 
T1 or Tambient 
P1 

L3 
Main Operation Mode 1 (SUS) 
W1+P1*+F+Fw+H 
1.1Sh1 
L4 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L4 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L5 
W1+P1*+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
1.5Sh1 pipes 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L4* 
W1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
 
L4 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L6 
Cold mode 1 
L4P1T1D1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 

L7 
L5P1*T1D1 
1.5Sc pipes 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 

L8 
L5P1*T1D1 
 
Calc 
0.5 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 
 

L9 
Expansion 
L5L8 
min(1.5(Sh1 + Sc), fat) 
 
 
 
 
 

L10 
Test Mode 
Ww+Pt*+F+Fw+Tt+Dt+Dd+S+H 
1.5St 
Calc 
1 
Singledirectional rigid / Designed 
Tambient 
Pt 

L11 
Main Operation Mode 2 (OCC) 
W2+P2+F+Fw+H 
1.5Sh2 
L12 
1 
Designed 
T2 
P2 

L12 
W2+P2+T2+D2+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
1.9Sh2 pipes 1.5(Sh2 + Sc) fittings 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T2 
P2 

L12* 
W2+T2+D2+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
 
Calc 
1 
Singledirectional rigid / Designed 
Tambient 
Pt 

L13 
Additional Occasional Loading 1.1 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H+F1.1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L14 
L13L5 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

L15 
L3+L14 
1.5St 
 
 
 
 
 
Note *  pressure is assumed to be 0 in RD 1024998.
Load cases for hightemperature piping the same as for lowtemperature piping, but have two differences:
Load cases L3  L6 for main operation mode is different. In L5 the creep piping behavior is considered
Added load case L6* that take into account the self coldspringing effect that happen in hightemperature piping due to creep
If options "Seismic", "Wind", "Snow" are selected then automatically performed several additional load case analysis for seismic, wind and snow loads
# 
Name 
Load case 
Allow. stress 
one way link 
Fric. fact. 
Spring 
E, alfa 
Bend kfactor 
Output 
L3 
Main Operational Mode 1 
W1+P1*+F+Fw+H 
1.1Sh1 
L4 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L4 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+Dd+H 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L5 
W1+P1*+χ*T1+χ*D1+F+Fw+Dd+H 
1.5Sh1 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L4* 
W1+T1+D1+F+Fw+Dd+H 
 
L4 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L6 
Cold Mode 1 
L4P1T1D1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 

L7 
Cold With SelfSpringing 
W1+P1δ*T1 δ*D1+F+Fw+Dd+H 
1.5Sc 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 
Note *  pressure is assumed to be 0 in RD 1024998.
Load cases:
Load cases L1  L2, L5 are performed for operation modes in which the "Spring Selection" option is activated
Load cases L3, L3*, L3** are performed for each main operation mode
Load case L4 is performed for test mode
Load case L6 is performed for each additional forcebased loading
If options "Seismic", "Wind", "Snow" are selected then automatically performed several additional load case analysis for seismic, wind and snow loads
# 
Name 
Load case 
Allowable stress 
one way link 
Frict. factor 
Spring 
E, alfa 
Bend kfactor 
Output 
L1 
Hanger selection 
W1 
 
Calc 
0 
Singledirectional rigid 
T1 
P1 

L2 
T1+D1+Dd 
 
L1 
0 
Stiffness iteration 
T1 
P1 

L3 
Operation Mode 1 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L3* 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L3** 
W1+T1+D1+F1+Fw1+S+Dd+H 
 
L3 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 

L4 
Test Mode 
Ww+Pt+Tt+Dt+Dd+S+H 
Calc 
1 
Singledirectional rigid / Designed 
Tt 
Pt 

L5 
Cold Mode 1 
L3P1T1D1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
0 

L6 
Additional Force loading 1.1 
W1+P1+T1+D1+F+Fw+S+Dd+H+F1.1 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
T1 
P1 
Note *  analysis uses standard load values without considered load safety factors
Template loads cases are shown in table below:
Load cases LH1  LH2 are performed for operation modes in which the "Spring Selection" option is activated
Load cases L1  L6 are performed for each main operation mode
Load case L7 is performed for operation modes in which the "Cold State" option is activated
L9 check is performed between cold and hot mode and between different operation modes
Load case L10 is performed for test mode
Load cases L11  L13 are performed for each additional forcebased loading
Load cases L4 and L8 are performed for main operation mode in which the "Creep" option is activated
If options "Seismic", "Wind", "Snow" are selected then automatically performed several additional load case analysis for seismic, wind and snow loads
Option 1. Consider hot modulus for support loads (in Project Settings)
Option 2. Stress range from operation to cold (in Project Settings and Stress Table)
Note: SIF and kfacrtors are calculates using maximum pressure from all load cases except occasional and test, and used for all load cases except occasional.
See also piping operating modes for more information.
# 
Name 
Load case 
Allowable stress 
one way link, gap 
Friction factor 
Spring Stifness 
E 
Alfa 
Bend kfactor 
Output 
LH1 
Hanger selection 
W1+F1 
 
Calc 
0 
Singledirectional rigid 
Tambient
or T1 
 
P1 

LH2 
T1+D1 
 
Calc 
0 
Stiffness iteration 
Tambient
or T1 
T1 
P1 

L1 
Weight in operation State 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H 
SL<k*W*Sh 
L5 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
 
P1 

L2 
Installation state 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H+CS+Dd1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
 
P1 

L3 
Operation without pressure 1 
W1+F+Fw+H+T1+CS+D1+Dd1 
 
L5 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 

L4 
Operation with creep 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H+χ·T1+χ·D1+Dd1 
SL<1.5*Sh 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 

L5 
Operation for loads 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H+T1+CS+D1+Dd1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient
or T1 
T1 
P1 

L6 
Operation for expansion 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H+T1+CS+D1+Dd1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 
 
L7 
Cold after cooling down 1 
L6T1D1 
 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 

L8 
Cold after relaxation (creep) 1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+Hδ·T1δ·D1 
SL<1.5*Sc 
Calc 
1 
Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 

L9 
Expansion 
L6L7 or L6L2 (option 2) 
Se<Sa 
 
1 
Designed 
 
 
P1 

L10 
Test state* 
Ww+Pt+H+F+Fw+Tt+CS+Dt+Dd 
SL<0.9*Sy 
Calc 
1 
Singledirectional rigid / Designed 
Tambient 
Tt 
P1 

L11 
Additional Force loading 1.1 
W1+P1+F+Fw+H+T1+CS+D1+Dd1+F1.1 
 
Calc 
1 
Singledirectional rigid / Designed 
Tambient 
T1 
P1 

L12 
L11L5 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

L13 
L1+12 
SL<k*W*Sh 
 
 
 
 
 
 
On the screenshots below the explanation where are the each load case is used.
Stresses:
Loads, Displacements
Expansion Joint Deformation
File > Operation Mode Editor